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In 1877, Carol led a successful joint revolt of Romanian and Russian troops against the Turks.
The Congress of Berlin of 1879 marked the end of Turkish domination.
Today the Jewish population is estimated at less than 10,000.
The German population has also decreased significantly.
From the 200s through the 1100s, there was a series of invasions by various tribes from the north, including the Magyars and the Saxons.The northern region developed into a principality called Transylvania, the south into a principality called Walachia, and the east into Moldavia.Throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Walachia and Moldavia battled repeated invasions by the Ottoman Empire.An exception is the Hungarian community in Transylvania, which has its own language and traditions and considers itself Hungarian.The Roma (Gypsies), who are scattered throughout the country, mostly in small camps on the outskirts of towns and cities, are in many ways culturally unassimilated. Romania is in southeastern Europe at the north end of the Balkan peninsula, bordering Ukraine and Moldova to the north, Hungary to the northwest, Serbia to the southwest, Bulgaria to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The name "Romania," which was first used when the three regions of the country were united in 1859, reflects the influence of ancient Rome on the nation's language and culture.The three regions—Walachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania—are relatively culturally uniform.In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the Ottoman Empire was weakened by a series of defeats to the Russians.In 1821, an uprising in Walachia against the Greek rulers ended in the execution of the Romanian leader Tudor Vladimirescu, which further fanned desires for independence.The language of the Roma population is Romany, although many Roma combine that language with Romanian. The flag consists of blue, yellow, and red vertical stripes that symbolize Transylvania, Moldavia, and Walachia, respectively.The coat of arms, adopted in 1992, consists of a gold eagle against a blue background holding a cross in its beak, a sword in one claw, and a scepter in the other.